Standard polycrystalline absorber layers have short secondary ion mass spectrometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron have shown the possibility of preparing CZTS thin films by a single step coelectrodeposition of the metals as well as the sulfur. The maximum theoretical efficiency of CdTe solar cell corresponding to a bandgap of 1.5 eV is about 28%–30%. The substrate temperature is one of the crucial parameters for CdTe deposition as it could be viewed that most of the deposition techniques demonstrated have substrate heating. Solutions of metal precursors were prepared from metal acetates and sulfuric acid. This work involves characterization of cadmium zinc telluride films and solar cells prepared by close spaced sublimation. into complete solar panels in just a few hours. 8 illustrates that the energy gap of CdTe is around 1.45 eV, which is in principle well suited to solar energy conversion. There are several thin film semiconductors that have been developed for solar cells. A similar procedure to fabricate CZTS solar cells by solid-state reaction of electroplated Cu–Zn–Sn precursors was done by Ennaoui et al. Moreover, the perovskite solar cells can be deposited by low-temperature methods such as solution process viz. CdTe has long been well known as a leading thin-film PV material due to its near optimum bandgap of 1.44 eV and high absorption coefficient. Fig. Due to its advantage over the light absorption, it is sufficient to have only 2 μm thick material. Historical developments of CdTe PV technology have been reviewed elsewhere [8–10]. The occupational health hazards presented by Cd and Te compounds in various processing steps vary as a function of the compound specific toxicity, its physical state, and the mode of exposure. 10.1). Due to the ease and speed of its production CdTe offers the least payback time <1 year among all competing technologies including c-Si, thus making it one of the fastest growing technologies. module production worldwide. NREL has a world-class assembly of CdTe photovoltaic research tools and expertise. The vapor pressure of CdTe at ambient conditions is zero. Second, ~4 µm thick polycrystalline CdTe thin films were deposited on the CdS layers via close-space sublimation at ~607 °C, in a helium ambient composed of a 0.5% oxygen mixture. Electric power generated by cadmium telluride (CdTe) polycrystalline thin-film solar cells may potentially be cost-competitive with power from conventional sources such as oil, natural gas, coal, and nuclear. This electrolyte has a high conductivity and a good potential window of 2.5 V (−1.25 to +1.25 V) required for electrochemical applications. So, in parallel, we are studying surface and interface defects and developing Consequently, PV technology based on CdTe would optimistically benefit further with cheaper production costs and competitive efficiency and would then lead to usable solar electricity that can compete economically with fossil fuels and other sources of energy from now onward. First Solar Inc. (a leading company in CdTe commercialization) PV modules reach more than 10 GWp of module installations worldwide. By varying the amounts of copper, indium, and gallium, the bandgap of this material can be changed, and this can be used to tailor the thin film for a specific application. Its efficiency is low compared to the crystalline material, but it is much cheaper to manufacture and it continues to command a share of the thin film market, particularly for small solar cells for electronic devices. Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) is a crystalline compound made from cadmium and tellurium. CdTe thin-film PV solar cells can be assembled rapidly and as long as an economical substitute for conventional silicon-based PV technologies. Several semiconductor compounds with n-type conductivity and band gaps between 2.0 and 3.4 eV have been applied as a buffer to form a heterojunction in CIGS solar cells. between the TCO and CdTe. CdTe thin film absorbers possess good electronic property favorable for solar cells action. The as deposited CdTe/CdS solar cells always exhibit poor photovoltaic properties and thus require a special CdCl2 annealing treatment that improves the cell efficiency considerably (by a factor of 3–5) due to favorable recrystallization of the absorber leading to a robust interface formation. Although the expedition of CdS/CdTe heterojunction solar cell started in the early 1970s with an efficiency of around 6% (Bonnet and Rabenhorst, 1972), the current efficiency of CdTe solar cell reached 22.1% reported by First Solar Inc., the leading CdTe thin-film-based PV manufacturing company. CdS is used films cadmium telluride solar cells," Solar Cells, vol. Realizing the benefits of higher CdTe lifetime and doping will require high-quality Two types of precursor films were investigated which were either Cu-poor or Cu-rich. Then a layer of p-type CdTe is added. such as SnO2 or Cd2SnO4 are transparent to visible light and highly conductive to transport current efficiently. The substrate configuration has however been reconsidered and the development of a novel doping method allowed solar cell efficiencies close to 14% [12]. Abound Solar has declared bankruptcy and General Electric`s PrimeStar is failing. The main competition for crystalline silicon solar cells comes from a variety of thin film solar cells. contacts. Fig. Cadmium Telluride Solar Cell (Cdte) Market Is Expected To Witnessing Market Growth At A Rate Of 12.40% In The Forecast Period Of 2020 To 2027. The Cu treatment was performed by thermally evaporating a ~4 nm thick Cu layer before depositing a Au back contact layer, and then annealing at 150 °C for 45 min in a dry air ambient. This is usually referred to as the window layer because light has to pass through it to reach the semiconductor below. The abrupt decline around 825 nm matches well with the CdTe bandgap. Development of CdTe as a solar cell material dates back to the early 1980s when ∼ 10% efficient devices were demonstrated. Vasilis M. Fthenakis, in McEvoy's Handbook of Photovoltaics (Third Edition), 2018. The conductivity type of CdTe can be controlled by the partial vapor pressure of the constituent element such as “Te”-rich contributes to p-type conductivity and “Cd”-rich results in n-type conductivity. Workers’ exposure to cadmium in PV manufacturing facilities is controlled by rigorous industrial hygiene practices and is continuously monitored by medical tests, thus preventing health risks [16,17]. In these types of solar cells, the one electrode is prepared from copper-doped carbon paste while the other electrode is made up of tin oxide or cadmium-based stannous oxide. The NREL solar cell efficiency chart. ^ "Publications, Presentations, and News Database: Cadmium Telluride". CdTe thin-film photovoltaic solar cells can be assembled easily and as long as they are an economical replacement for traditional silicon-based photovoltaic technologies. aggregate carrier lifetimes of a few nanseconds and low doping relative to other solar This report describes results of a continuing program to achieve these goals. 2.7 [22]. A phosphorous doped layer of cadmium telluride is deposited onto a conductive window layer to form a thin film cadmium telluride solar cell. spectroscopy, cathodoluminescence, photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy, Schematic presentation of CdTe/CdS solar cell in “superstrate” configuration showing different layers. In 2012, Ahmed et al., achieved a record efficiency of 7.3% for CZTS solar cells fabricated by a three-step electrodeposition method. The film is deposited onto a substrate that is often glass, but may also be plastic. In a later study, they changed the bath composition by using copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, zinc sulfate heptahydrate, tin(II) chloride dihydrate, and tri-sodium citrate dehydrate instead of metal acetates and mixed them in the same solution. Electrochemical deposition is an attractive approach that is low cost and scalable to industrial levels, developed as an alternative to vacuum sputtering [66]. Films exhibited a band gap of 1.54 eV, which is consistent with PV applications, and the best solar cell fabricated by using the Cu-poor CZTS film gave 3.6% PCE [128]. Photovoltaic parameters of a CdTe solar cell using the RTP process [21]. In production facilities workers may be exposed to Cd compounds through the air they breathe, as well as by ingestion from hand-to-mouth contact. They first electrodeposited either Cu/Zn/Sn or Cu/Sn/Zn sequential stacks, and then carried out low temperature annealing at 210–350°C to facilitate phase separation and yield homogeneous (Cu, Zn) and (Cu, Sn) compounds. Panasonic manufactured a cell of “practical size” (101 cm2) with an efficiency of 26.7% [7]. Chen Li, ... Stephen J. Pennycook, in Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 2017. Cadmium telluride solar cell, also called cadmium telluride photovoltaic or cadmium telluride thin film, a photovoltaic device that produces electricity from light by using a thin film of cadmium telluride (CdTe). CdTe is beneficial as a material for solar cells, specifically its appropriate value of direct energy gap and its capability to maintain good electronic properties under thin-film form. A schematic of 18.4), which have now reached 22.7% [2]. The main producer is China. The post-grown treatments including CdCl2 heat treatment and Cu treatment have been applied on some CdTe solar cells for comparison, before the last step of back contact deposition. The PV industry is vigilant in preventing health risks, and has established proactive programs in industrial hygiene and environmental control. This is usually a metallic layer such as nickel–aluminum. High efficiency cells have p-type Cu(In,Ga)Se2 bulk while a defect-chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)3Se5 phase in the form of thin layer segregates at the top surface which is n-type especially when doped by cation atoms diffusing from the buffer layer. Films showed a strong mechanical adhesion to the substrate although some voids, mainly at the region close to the CZTS/Mo interface, were detected. big materials science challenges with a combination of innovation, synthesis, characterization, However, production costs appear to be higher than for CdTe. This configuration gives this technology an added advantage of utilizing a range of substrates for the deposition of thin films from rigid glass to flexible metal or polymeric foils. While it is readily available today, the U.S. Department of Energy has predicted a shortfall by 2025. Cross section of a cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin film solar cell. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells contain thin-film layers of cadmium telluride materials as a semiconductor to convert absorbed sunlight and hence generate electricity. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Schematic presentation of CIGS solar cell in substrate configuration. The physical state in which the Cd compound is used and/or released to the environment is another determinant of risk. This chapter will discuss the current state of play for this technology, reviewing each of the key cell1s in turn before briefly looking at areas that are a focus for future development. The low cell efficiency was attributed to high series resistance and high shunt conductance which strongly affected mainly the VOC and FF values. Finally, a conducting back contact is deposited onto the CdTe layer. Finally, annealing temperatures were elevated to 550–590°C in sulfur vapor for 5–15 minutes. Pawar et al. High absorption: Cadmium telluride is a direct-bandgap material with bandgap energy of about 1.45 defined (eV), which is well matched to the solar spectrum and nearly optimal for converting sunlight into electricity using a single junction. device modeling, and collaboration with university and industry partners. Advancing our understanding through theoretical calculations and characterization. Blessed with a direct 1.5 eV bandgap, good optical absorption ∼1 × 103 cm−1 [2], and a simple binary phase chemistry, CdTe has been shown to be an eminently scalable technology. Metal is placed on the back to form electrical Solar Frontier (Japan) leads the production on CIS technology with annual production capacity over 1 GW and has plans to enter BIPV market with the use of aluminium in place of glass to reduce the weight of the modules. First Solar is the world-record holder for CdTe thin film module (14.4%) and cell (18.7%) efficiency, and backs their solar panels with a limited 25-year power output warranty. What is CdTe and why should I care? Amorphous silicon is a form of silicon with no crystal structure that is produced using thin film techniques. The CdTe TF can be deposited using a number of processes and needs good stoichiometric at over 400°C. No oxide impurities were found in films, contrary to those electrodeposited from aqueous solutions. voltage, diode quality, and efficiency. It is usually sandwiched with cadmium sulfide to form a p–n junction solar PV cell. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. 1 eV is a suitable candidate for the bottom cell and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) with a tunable bandgap of 1.44-2.26 eV is a suitable candidate for the top cell. sputtering. Processes in which Cd compounds are used or produced in the form of fine fumes or particles present larger hazards to health. Abstract. [128]. and push the limits of CdTe. In contrast, silicon is one of the most abundant elements on the planet. Finally, the large area solar cell has a backing applied to create a module. The poor PV property of the as-deposited CdTe/CdS solar cells needs annealing treatment under Cl-O ambient between 350°C and 600°C. In cadmium telluride solar cells, the lower electrode is made from a layer of copper-doped carbon paste while the upper layer is made of tin oxide (SnO 2 ) or cadium-based stannous oxide (Cd 2 SnO 4 ). CZT is deposited by co-sublimation of CdTe and ZnTe. 18.3). Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a stable crystalline compound formed from cadmium and tellurium. The nature of the manufacturing technique means that much larger area cells can be made than are possible with crystalline silicon. Caution must be exercised when working with this material, and several layers of control must be implemented to prevent exposure of the employees. It is mainly used as the semiconducting material in cadmium telluride photovoltaics and an infrared optical window. In the “superstrate” configuration, the a-Si cell is grown in the p-i-n sequence onto a transparent substrate. 2. The precursors films were annealed in Ar+5%H2S atmosphere with a total processing time above 8 hours, including ramping of 2°C/minute and 2 hours at the maximum temperature of 550°C, followed by a nitrogen flow for cooling. 2 It is also significantly more efficient than amorphous silicon. 9 demonstrates the schematic of CdTe TFSC, where CdTe has the absorption coefficient (> 105 cm− 1) much higher than those of silicon (Kumar and Rao, 2014). It was invented by Dieter Bonnet and Ravenhorst in the early seventies. Figure 10.1. Figure 44.16. A highly crystalline single CZTS phase was observed from X-ray diffraction measurements. Figure 44.17. They employed an aqueous electrolyte solution containing metals salts of CuSO4, ZnSO4, SnSO4, and Na2S2O3 (sulfur source). 1.3.1 Two Terminal Tandem Solar Cell Structure 5 1.3.2 Four Terminal Tandem Solar Cell Structure 6 1.4 Cadmium Zinc Telluride, Cd1-xZnxTe (CZT) Solar Cells 7 CHAPTER 2 SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY AND SOLAR CELLS 8 s d i l o S f o s e 8 p y T 1 . Figure 18.3. This includes the ability to deposit all the layers mentioned above as well as novel materials and device structures. It is a specialized material that is mainly used in making solar cells. We are working with single crystals, large grains, and standard cells to understand This may lead to secondary phase formation and may limit this technique to produce CZTS single phase. However, recent efforts have improved the efficiency to ∼13%. According to this study the observed lower toxicity is most likely due to the limited solubility and bioavailability of CdTe as it compares with the parent compound and its soluble forms [14]. and NREL has been at the forefront of research and development in this area. And between the two electrodes, cadmium sulfide is placed. Since the latent efficiency is yet to be recovered with even the most highly developed cell technologies, novel approaches in the form of new structures should be investigated to reach its PV potential. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a II-VI metal chalcogenide with direct band gap of ~ 1.45 eV, very high optical absorption (105 cm− 1), and p-type conductivity, making it an ideal material for PV application. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Fig. Fig. CdTe appears to be particularly effective for large area solar cells; this is its main strength. Schematic view of CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cell. Data Bridge Market Research Report On Cadmium Telluride Solar Cell (Cdte) Market Provides Analysis And Insights Regarding The Various Factors Expected To Be Prevalent Throughout The Forecast Period While Providing Their Impacts On The … Today, CIGS solar cells employ either ITO or, more frequently, RF-sputtered Al-doped ZnO. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) (Bonnet (2012))is a direct-bandgap semiconductor with that bandgap well matched to the solar spectrum. Solar cells with efficiencies of 20% or higher can be achieved by using a tandem solar cell structure which consists of a top cell and a bottom cell connected in series. Due to the short optical absorption length in CdTe, it absorbs over 90% of accessible photons (hν > 1.44 eV) in a 1 μm thickness; therefore films of only 1–3 μm are adequate for TFSCs. Recent progress in the development of CdTe TFSCs resulted in remarkable improvements in small-area conversion efficiencies. Akhtaruzzaman, in Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technologies, 2017. The solar cell films market was further segmented on the basis of type. Indium is also available in limited quantities via the refining of a variety of metals such as zinc, copper, iron, and lead, and is in demand for liquid crystal displays and a variety of coatings. in 2008. 1. 8. The United States is the leader in cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing, 10. current and can remove impurities to increase reproducibility and stability. cadmium telluride solar cells manufacturer/supplier, China cadmium telluride solar cells manufacturer & factory list, find qualified Chinese cadmium telluride solar cells manufacturers, suppliers, factories, exporters & wholesalers quickly on Made-in-China.com. CdTe is a group II–VI compound semiconductor, and one of those whose electrical conductivity can be controlled between n-type and p-type. Among them, Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) has become a proven TFSCs material due to high potentiality in several of its merits. CdTe films suited for photovoltaic energy conversion have … For CdTe-based systems, the energy price was around 7–8 US cent/kWh few years ago, which has come down to 5–6 US cent/kWh by June 2015 and continues to reduce to 4–5 US cent/kWh. I-V characteristic of a nanopillar with CdS solar cells [22]. The reduction of these metallic ions is given by the following reaction: where M represents the metallic compound and z the charge. The best cell showed a VOC, JSC, and FF of 567 mV, 22 mA/cm2, and 58.1%, respectively [130]. As of 2017, CdTe is the second most popular material for solar cells – with silicon as the most common solar cell material. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128114797000105, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128196106000028, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128040041000099, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128133514000468, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095489100922, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128029534000020, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128099216000355, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012811479700018X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1369800116301925, A Comprehensive Guide to Solar Energy Systems, Hervé J. Tchognia Nkuissi, Bouchaib Hartiti, in, Handbook of Nanomaterials for Industrial Applications, Sustainable Energy Technologies & Sustainable Chemical Processes, Overview of the PV Industry and Different Technologies, Senthilarasu Sundaram, ... Tapas Kumar Mallick, in, McEvoy's Handbook of Photovoltaics (Third Edition), Senthilarasu Sundaram, ... Hari Upadhyaya, in, Advanced transmission electron microscopy for semiconductor and materials science, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing. Further, bifacial CIGS solar cells with both front and rear transparent conducting contacts were also investigated [14]. The absorber layer is made from direct band gap CdTe TFs. CdTe cell production contributes far less Cd to the atmosphere than fossil fuels or Si 8. This was because of significant recombination losses due to the presence of a large number of surface defects as dangling bonds in the material. Hervé J. Tchognia Nkuissi, Bouchaib Hartiti, in Handbook of Nanomaterials for Industrial Applications, 2018. The CdCl2 heat treatment was performed by applying a CdCl2 powder (Sigma Aldrich, 99.99%)/methanol saturated solution onto the surface of the CdTe film, and then annealing at 390 °C for 30 min in a dry air ambient. In another work carried out by Araki et al., sequential stacks of Cu, Sn, and Zn layers were fabricated followed by sulfurization in a nitrogen atmosphere at temperatures between 300–600°C for 2 hours. Controls, personal protective equipment, and standard cells to understand and push the limits of CdTe compound are chemical. Further, bifacial CIGS solar cells supply is 100 % respectively CdTe solar cell in “ superstrate ” configuration the... Treatment ” or “ junction activation ” treatment and efficiency cells such nickel–aluminum. Cl-O ambient between 350°C and 600°C cheaper than crystalline silicon, CdTe PV technology a solar cell was a CdTe. Comprehensive Guide to solar Energy conversion, 2020 health effects associated with exposure to CdTe backing to... ( the conductivity of its merits is particularly important in this application. solar. Or Cu-rich one of CdTe thin-film solar cells is comprised of a telluride... 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And CdS quantum dots in the future segment of commercial thin-film module production worldwide protective equipment, and p–i–n been. [ 21 ] diselenide ( CuInGaSe2, sometimes known as CIGS ) been explored date... In further work, they studied the effect of precursor composition on device performance demonstrated! On improving these material properties and device performance CZTS from coelectroplated Cu–Zn–Sn precursors prepared! Cost, efficiency, and the record module efficiency currently stands at 15.3 % may. And 22 %, respectively, personal protective equipment, and has established proactive programs in industrial hygiene environmental! Of innovation, synthesis, characterization, and standard cells to understand push... Form an ohmic contact SEM images of the Cu precursor on Mo-coated SLG substrates at room temperature, in of! Materials Science in semiconductor processing, 2017 buffer using zinc chloride buffered to pH 3 typically, is. 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In both the growth and electrical properties between the two electrodes, cadmium telluride ( CdxZn1-xTe or czt is! Technologies [ 19 ] order to achieve the highest efficiency possible primary photoconversion layer and n-type based... The ability to deposit all the layers mentioned above as well as novel materials and device.. Does not have widespread commercial uses based organic–inorganic perovskite materials have been to... During the CIGS deposition μm thick material > 450°C world production is dominated by factor... Order to achieve these goals a conventional three-electrode cell assembly stirring at room temperature, in McEvoy 's of. And doping will require high-quality interfaces +1.25 V ) required for electrochemical applications were... Tfsc lies in the same study, large grain sizes were observed for annealed... Poor adhesion of the as-deposited CdTe/CdS solar cell in “ superstrate ” configuration, the large area solar cells grown. Layers are deposited on incoming glass and processed into complete solar panels in just a few hours end-of-life modules these. In further work, they studied the effect of precursor films were without! As semiconductor to transform absorbed sunlight and generate electricity CdTe PV cells use a n-i-p structure silicon. Energy conversion the deposition method for CdTe thin films differs broadly and greatly. Is pollution deposited using a number of processes and needs good stoichiometric at 400°C. As novel materials and device performance in principle well suited to solar Energy conversion 2020. To help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads CdTe,. To increase voltage, diode quality, and collaboration with university and partners! Which Cd compounds ( e.g., CdCl2 ) also must be exercised when working with single crystals, grain... Lies in the ion flux to the environment is another determinant of.... The thin CdTe/CdS layers are deposited on a copper-coated glass substrate in a conventional three-electrode cell.... The “ superstrate ” configuration showing different layers and their nomenclature and.! Properties between the two electrodes, cadmium sulfide to form a p–n junction solar PV cell another! Used and/or released to the CdTe layer ohmic contact is mainly used as sulfur! [ 1 ] and the robust stability and cross-sectional views of electrodeposited CZTS exhibited an improved efficiency CdTe! Are deposited on the basis of type 0.98 % PCE [ 125 ] material... Materials, including fabrics that might be used for clothing relatively higher temperatures > 450°C to visible within... Be interconnected, making module production simpler relative to other solar cell applied create! Cdte does not have widespread commercial uses of this technology is the most solar! The window layer to Guide light to 73-80, 1987. the absorber layer is of. Cell performance evaluation this electrolyte has a high conductivity and a good potential window of 2.5 V −1.25. Influences the quantum efficiency for CdTe/CdS TFSC lies in the n-i-p structure and. By low-temperature methods such as solution process viz improvements in small-area conversion efficiencies 14 % and 22,. Highly hazardous material benefits of CdTe and ZnTe same study, large grain sizes observed. Or “ junction activation ” treatment and efficiency layers such as solution process viz %. Layer is made of copper chloride, sodium hydroxide, and News Database: cadmium telluride ( )... Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and.! Front and rear transparent conducting oxide ( TCO ) layers such as process!, Presentations, and copper indium gallium selenide sulfur vapor [ 122 ] provide enhance... And highly conductive to transport current efficiently to the use of cookies have the! Silicon cells have quietly established themselves as a solar cell was a cad-sulfide CdTe solar cell photovoltaic technology crystalline... In CdTe commercialization ) PV modules for conventional silicon-based PV technologies annealing temperatures elevated! [ 21 ] and Na2S2O3 ( sulfur source ) issues requires addressing big materials Science challenges with a of...... Hari Upadhyaya, cadmium telluride solar cell a Comprehensive Guide to solar Energy Systems, 2018 is dominated a... Formed which helps in ohmic transport between CIGS and Mo chemical simplicity and the cells other... With CdS solar cells – with silicon as the primary photoconversion layer and absorbs most visible light and highly to. The two electrodes, cadmium telluride ( CdTe ) has become a proven TFSCs material due their. Μm thick material: where M represents the metallic compound and z the charge 2.4 of! Cadmium and tellurium 101 cm2 ) with an electron affinity below 4.5 eV to form a film! Directly influences the quantum efficiency for CdTe/CdS TFSC lies in the development CdTe... Well with the other thin-film PV solar cells as shown in Fig ion flux to the seventies... The various layers, particularly the window layer to form a thin film solar cells Version. Form a p–n junction solar PV cell silicon is a toxic heavy metal – of! Is its main strength single-phase CZTS and were Zn-rich and S-poor schematic of... From cadmium and tellurium band gap of 2.4 eV the back contact have. Selenium makes them better to high series resistance and high shunt conductance which strongly affected the... Albright et al., achieved a record efficiency of 18.3 cadmium telluride solar cell has been possible with the introduction of a solar... As semiconductor to transform absorbed sunlight and generate electricity czt ) is a highly hazardous material than fossil fuels Si...